By , the Nazi leadership decided to implement the Final Solution , the genocide of the Jews of Europe , and increase the pace of the Holocaust by establishing extermination camps for the specific purpose of killing Jews as well as other undesirables such as people who openly opposed Hitler. This was an industrial method of genocide. Millions of Jews who had been confined to diseased and massively overcrowded ghettos were transported often by train to death camps , where some were herded into a specific location often a gas chamber , then killed with either gassing or shooting.
Other prisoners simply committed suicide, unable to go on after witnessing the horrors of camp life. Afterward, their bodies were often searched for any valuable or useful materials, such as gold fillings or hair , and their remains were then buried in mass graves or burned. Others were interned in the camps where they were given little food and disease was common. Escapes from the camps were few, but not unknown. The few escapes from Auschwitz that succeeded were made possible by the Polish underground inside the camp and local people outside.
Every prisoner who managed to escape can count on help the moment he reaches the wall of the first Polish farmstead. For much of the 19th century, Imperial Russia , which included much of Poland , Ukraine , Moldova and the Baltic states , contained the world's largest Jewish population.
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From Alexander III 's reign until the end of Tsarist rule in Russia, many Jews were often restricted to the Jewish Pale of Settlement and they were also banned from many jobs and locations. Jews were subject to racist laws, such as the May Laws , and they were also targeted in hundreds of violent anti-Jewish riots, called pogroms , which received unofficial state support. It was during this period that a hoax document alleging a global Jewish conspiracy , The Protocols of the Elders of Zion , was published.
The Czarist government implemented programs which ensured that the Jews would remain isolated. However, the government tolerated their religious and national institutions as well as their right to emigrate.
The restrictions and discriminatory laws drove many Russian Jews to embrace liberal and socialist causes. However, following the Russian Revolution many politically active Jews forfeited their Jewish identity. To them, Jews were not a nation but a class of exploiters whose fate it was to dissolve and assimilate. In the aftermath of Czarist Russia, Jews found themselves in a tragic predicament. Conservative Russians saw them as a disloyal and subversive element and the radicals viewed the Jews as a doomed social class. Even though many of the Old Bolsheviks were ethnically Jewish, they sought to uproot Judaism and Zionism and established the Yevsektsiya in order to achieve this goal.
By the end of the s, the Communist leadership of the former USSR had liquidated almost all Jewish organizations, with the exception of a few token synagogues. These synagogues were then placed under police surveillance, both openly and through the use of informants.
The campaign of — against so-called " rootless cosmopolitans ," the alleged " Doctors' plot ," the rise of " Zionology " and subsequent activities of official organizations such as the Anti-Zionist committee of the Soviet public were officially carried out under the banner of " anti-Zionism ", and by the mids the state persecution of Soviet Jews emerged as a major human rights issue in the West as well as domestically. During the s, many Nationalist Party leaders and wide sections of the Afrikaner people came strongly under the influence of the Nazi movement which dominated Germany from to There were many reasons for this.
Germany was the traditional enemy of Britain , and whoever opposed Britain was seen as a friend of the Nationalists. Many Nationalists, moreover, believed that the opportunity to re-establish their lost republic would come with the defeat of the British Empire in the international arena. The more belligerent Hitler became, the higher hopes rose that a new era of Afrikanerdom was about to dawn. Jewish immigration from Eastern Europe was controlled under the Aliens Act and it soon came to an end during this period. Although Jews were accorded status as Europeans, they were not accepted into white society.
Many Jews lived in mixed race areas such as District Six, from where they were forcibly removed in order to make way for a whites-only development. Another organization with which the Nationalists found much in common during the thirties was the 'South African Gentile National Socialist Movement', headed by Johannes von Strauss von Moltke , whose objective was to combat and destroy the alleged 'perversive influence of the Jews in economics , culture , religion , ethics , and statecraft and re-establish European Aryan control in South Africa for the welfare of the Christian peoples of South Africa'.
During the s, Oswald Mosley , the British fascist leader, was a frequent visitor to South Africa, where he was received by the Prime Minister and other members of the Cabinet. At one time, Mosley had two functioning branches of his organization in South Africa, and one of his supporters, Derek Alexander, was stationed in Johannesburg as his main agent. While Vorster had been a supporter of Hitler during WWII, his policy towards Jews in his own country, however, can best be described as ambivalent. The s saw the rise of far-right neo-Nazi groups such as the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging under Eugene Terreblanche.
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See also: Maccabees. Main article: Christianity and antisemitism. Religious discrimination Separation of church and state. Status by country. Religious persecution. Part of Jewish history Part of Discrimination. Three Ds Working Definition of Antisemitism. Antisemitic canards. Antisemitic publications. Antisemitism on the Web. Boycotts Expulsions General Order No.
Main article: The Holocaust. Main article: Antisemitism in the Russian Empire. Main article: Antisemitism in the Soviet Union. Main article: Antisemitism in South Africa. An Introduction to Early Judaism. The database can be searched by family names and residence. Joods Monument Joods Monument commemorates the more than , persons who were persecuted as Jews in the Netherlands and did not survive the Holocaust. Each victim is honoured with photos, personal stories, an address, and links to pages for family members when applicable. Lodz Cemetery The online database contains the names found on graves on the cemetery in Lodz.
The page for each inhabitant also features more detailed information as well as links to related events and places. The Polish Monitor JRI Poland Users can search for results in the database by surname or town to find more than 5 million Jewish birth, marriage and death records. The database also contains other records such as books of residents, army draft lists and ghetto death records. Gura Humorului Jewish Cemetery The resource contains an index of names on the over 2, gravestones of the Jewish cemetery in Gura Humorului.
Radautz Cemetery The project aims to provide information about the graves on the Radautz Cemetery since The Radautz Marriages Database This rich database contains over 3, properly indexed marriage records for the period - This is a helpful resource for finding maiden names - a common missing link when conducting genealogical research. Free UK Genealogy The project aims to make transcriptions of family history records freely available online.
Trace the persecution of the Jewish people in Europe by Alyssa Futrell on Prezi
Follow FreeUKGen. The search categories include serial number, name, service code, state of residence, area, status, detaining power and camp. Follow justgreatlawyer. The search fields include description field, source field, ITS file location field and accession date field.
Holocaust and Human Behavior
Follow holocaustmuseum. JewishGen The genealogy website provides databases, research tools and other resources for researchers searching for Jewish ancestry. The website includes databases and records from more than 16 countries as well as a guide on how to use the databases. Follow JewishGen. Another instrument of 12th-century anti-Semitism, the compulsory yellow badge that identified the wearer as a Jew , was also revived by the Nazis.
The practice of segregating the Jewish populations of towns and cities into ghettos dates from the Middle Ages and lasted until the 19th and early 20th centuries in much of Europe. This economic resentment, allied with traditional religious prejudice , prompted the forced expulsion of Jews from several countries and regions, including England , France 14th century , Germany s , Portugal , Provence , and the Papal States Only Jews who had converted to Christianity were allowed to remain, and those suspected of continuing to practice Judaism faced persecution in the Spanish Inquisition.
As a result of these mass expulsions, the centres of Jewish life shifted from western Europe and Germany to Turkey and then to Poland and Russia. But where they were needed, Jews were tolerated. Living as they did at the margins of society, Jews performed economic functions that were vital to trade and commerce.
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Because premodern Christianity did not permit moneylending for interest and because Jews generally could not own land, Jews played a vital role as moneylenders and traders. Where they were permitted to participate in the larger society, Jews thrived. During the Middle Ages in Spain , before their expulsion in , Jewish philosophers, physicians, poets, and writers were among the leaders of a rich cultural and intellectual life shared with Muslims and Christians.
In collaboration with Arab scholars and thinkers in the tolerant society of Muslim Spain, they were instrumental in transmitting the intellectual heritage of the Classical world to medieval Christendom. The idea that the Jews were evil persisted during the Protestant Reformation. Although Martin Luther expressed positive feelings about Jews, especially earlier in his life, and relied on Jewish scholars for his translation of the Hebrew scriptures into German, he became furious with Jews over their rejection of Jesus. Jews remained subject to occasional massacres, such as those that occurred during wars between Eastern Orthodox Ukrainians and Roman Catholic Poles in the midth century, which rivaled the worst massacres of Jews in the Middle Ages.
Periodic persecutions of Jews in western Europe continued until the late 18th century, when the Enlightenment changed their position, at least in the West. It did not necessarily reduce anti-Semitism. Although the major Enlightenment figures championed the light of reason in debunking what they regarded as the superstitions of Christian belief, their thinking did not lead to any greater acceptance of Jews.
Instead of holding Jews responsible for the Crucifixion, Enlightenment thinkers blamed them for the advent of Christianity and for the injustices and cruelty committed by followers of monotheistic religions.
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- THE PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE ().
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